8 Ocak 2011 Cumartesi

Simple Past Tense (Geçmiş Zaman)

Simple Past, geçmişte belirli bir zamanda yapılmış ve bitmiş eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.



A. USE

1. The Simple Past tense is used to talk about completed actions in the past:
Simple Past, geçmişte belirli bir zamanda yapılmış eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanılır. "Yesterday, last night, two weeks ago, in 2002" gibi zarflar kullanılabilir.

I graduated from the university in 2003.
He came from Berlin last night.


2. The Simple Past is used to describe situations which existed for a period of time in the past.
Geçmişte belirli bir süre içerisinde devam etmiş olayları, eylemleri anlatmak için kullanılır.

Millions of years ago, dinosaurs inhabited the earth.
They talked to each other during the lesson.
He lived in England for a long time.


3. It is also used to talk about habits in the past:
Geçmişteki alışkanlıkları ifade etmek için yine Simple Past kullanılır. I always wore a khaki cap in the summer.

He never drank tea.
They generally read several novels in the winter.


4. It is used to talk about events that happened one after the other:
Hikaye anlatırken olayları ard arda sıraladığımızda kullanırız.

He jumped out of bed, ran into the bathroom and slammed the door.


B. STRUCTURE
Positive Structure:
I
You
He
She worked
It
We
They
Note: Use second form of Irregular verbs in positive structure of the Past Simple Tense..
(Geçmiş zaman olumlu cümlelerde, düzensiz fiillerin 2. hali kullanılır.)

Click here for Irregular Verbs Table
Negative Structure:
I
You
He
She didn't work
It
We
They
Question structure:
I
You
Did He
Didn't She work?
It
We
They

Kaynak: ingilizcenet.com
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SIMPLE PAST TENSE ENGLISH EXPLANATION:

Form of the Simple Past

Form the Simple Past:
- with regular verbs: infinitive + -ed
- with irregular verbs: 2nd column of the table of the irregular verbs

Affirmative sentences:

Use the same form of the verb every time regardless the subject.
regular verbs irregular verbs
I played football. I went to the supermarket.

Negative sentences:

Use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of do) every time regardless the subject.
regular verbs irregular verbs
I did not play football. I did not go to the supermarket.
NOTE: Short forms in negative sentences in the Simple Past are used quite often.
regular verbs irregular verbs
I didn't play football. I didn't go to the supermarket.

Questions:

Use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of do) every time regardless the subject.
regular verbs irregular verbs
Did you play football? Did I go to the supermarket?


Simple Past - Signal words

These words tell you what tense you have to use. For the Simple Past these are expressions of time in the past.
yesterday
last week
a month ago
in 2002 

Special verbs in the Simple Past

Many frequently used verbs are irregular. You find these words in the appendix of a dictionary or in your English book. You must learn these words by heart.
Have a look at the following lists which can be downloaded and printed. (*.pdf files)
Most common irregular verbs
Irregular verbs - full list
Irregular verbs - Learn effectively
1) have as a full verb
affirmative sentence negative sentence question
every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):
I had a book. I did not have a book. Did I have a book?

2) be as a full verb
affirmative sentence negative sentence question
I, he, she, it:
I was in Rome. I was not in Rome. Was I in Rome?
we, you, they:
We were in Rome. We were not in Rome. Were we in Rome?

3) do as a full verb
affirmative sentence negative sentence question
every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):
I did an exercise. I did not do an exercise. Did I do an exercise?
We often use short forms/contracted forms with these verbs.


Simple Past - Spelling

You have to know all forms of the irregular verbs very well. For the Simple Past you need the form of the verb which can be found in the 2nd column of the table of the irregular verbs.
go - went - gone
Add -ed with regular verbs.
regular verbs
infinitive + -ed
Sometimes the are exceptions in spelling when adding -ed.

1) consonant after short, stressed vowel at the end of the word

Double the consonant.
stop – stopped
swap - swapped
If the consonant is not stressed, we do not double it:
benefit - benefited (Here we stress the first 'e', not the 'i'.) In British English we double one -l at the end of the word:
travel - travelled

2) one -e at the end of the word

Add only -d.
love – loved
save – saved

3) verbs ending in -y

verbs ending in 'y' preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u): Add -ed.
Example:
I play - he played
verbs ending in 'y' preceded by a consonant: Change 'y' to 'i' Then add -ed.
Example:
I hurry - he hurried
irregular verbs
2nd column of the table of the irregular verbs


Use

1) action finished in the past

I visited Berlin last week.

2) series of completed actions in the past

First I got up, then I had breakfast

3) together with the Past Progressive/Continuous - The Simple Past interrupted an action which was in progress in the past.

They were playing cards when the telephone rang.

Signal words

yesterday, last week, a month ago, in 2002

Form

- with regular verbs: infinitive + -ed
- with irregular verbs: 2nd column of the table of the irregular verbs

Examples

Affirmative sentences:

regular verbs irregular verbs
I played football. I went to the cinema.
We visited Alaska last year. We were in Rome yesterday.

Negative sentences:

You must not negate a full verb in English. Always use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of to do) for negations.
I played football.
I play football.
He play football.

Questions:

Use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of to do).
Did you play football?


Simple Past - Use

The Simple Past is used to talk about actions or situations in the past. It is also called Past Simple.
Have a look at the following examples:

1) action finished in the past (single or repeated)

I visited Berlin last week.
Andrew watched TV yesterday.

2) series of completed actions in the past

First I got up, then I had breakfast.

3) together with the Past Progressive/Continuous - The Simple Past interrupted an action which was in progress in the past.

They were playing cards when the telephone rang.
1st action: Past Progressive were playing
2nd action: Simple Past rang

Simple Past - Diagram

We use the Simple Past when we talk about something which started and finished in the past.
Simple Past

We use the Simple Past to describe a series of actions in the past.
Simple Past

We use the Simple Past (red) together with the Past Progressive (grey). The action in the Simple Past interrupted the action in the Past Progressive (the one which was in progress).
Simple Past

Source: englisch-hilfen.de
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SIMPLE PAST TENSE EXERCISES:

Exercise 1:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_statements.htm

Exercise 2:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_statements2.htm

Exercise 3:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_negation_sentences.htm

Exercise 4:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_negation_sentences2.htm

Exercise 5
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_negation_sentences3.htm

Exercise 6
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_mix.htm

Exercise 7:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_past_mix2.htm

Exercise 8:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/was_were.htm

Exercise 9:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/was_not_were_not.htm

Exercise 10:
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/complex_tests/simple_past1/index.php

Exercise 11:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?04

Exercise 12:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?03

Exercise 13:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?02

Exercise 14:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises

Exercise 15:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?05

Exercise 16:
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past/exercises?06

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