9 Ocak 2013 Çarşamba

English Tenses (İngilizce'de Bütün Zamanlar)

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English tenses - Diagram





English Tenses  (All)


Aşağıda yer alan tabloyu PDF olarak indirmek isterseniz lütfen buraya tıklayınız...



TenseSignal wordsUseFormExamples
affirmative
Examples
negative
Examples
interrogative
Simple
Present
or
Present Simple
every day

sometimes

always

often

usually

seldom

never

first ... then
something happens repeatedly

how often something happens

one action follows another

things in general

with the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.)

future meaning: timetables, programmes
infinitive he/she/it + -sworkdon't work.Do I work?
He works.He doesn'twork.Does hework?
go.don't go.Do I go?
He goes.He doesn't go.Does he go?
Present
Progressive or
Present Continuous
now

at the moment

Look!

Listen!
something is happening at the same time of speaking or around it

future meaning: when you have already decided and arranged to do it (a fixed plan, date)
to be (am/are/is) +infinitive + -ingI'm working.I'm not working.Am Iworking?
He's working.He isn'tworking.Is heworking?
I'm going.I'm not going.Am I going?
He's going.He isn't going.Is he going?
Simple
Past
or
Past
Simple
last ...

... ago

in 1990

yesterday
action finished in the past, mostly connected with an expression of time (no connection to the present)regular:
infinitive + -edirregular:
2nd column of table of irregular verbs
workeddidn't workDid I work?
He workedHe didn't work.Did he work?
went.didn't go.Did I go?
He went.He didn't go.Did he go?
Past
Progressive or
Past Continuous
whilean action happened in the middle of another action

someone was doing sth. at a certain time (in the past) - you do not know whether it was finished or not
was/were +infinitive + -ingwas workingwasn'tworkingWas Iworking?
He wasworking.He wasn'tworking.Was heworking?
was going.wasn't going.Was I going?
He was going.He wasn'tgoing.Was hegoing?
Simple
Present
Perfect
or
Present
Perfect
just

yet

never

ever

already

so far,

up to now,

since

for

recently
you say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and it has a connection to the present

action started in the past and continues up to the present
have/has + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)
I have workedI haven'tworkedHave Iworked?
He has worked.He hasn'tworked.Has heworked?
I have gone.I haven't gone.Have I gone?
He has gone.He hasn't gone.Has he gone?
Present Perfect
Progressive or
Present
Perfect
Continuous
all day

the whole day

how long

since

for
action began in the past and has just stopped

how long the action has been happening

emphasis: length of time of an action
have/has +been + infinitive-inghave beenworking.I haven't beenworking.Have I beenworking?
He has beenworking.He hasn't beenworking.Has he beenworking?
I have beengoing.I haven't beengoing.Have I beengoing?
He has beengoing.He hasn't beengoing.Has he beengoing?
Simple
P
ast
Perfect
or
Past
Perfect
(Simple)
already

just

never
mostly when two actions in a story are related to each other: the action which had already happened is put into Past Perfect, the other action into Simple Past

the past of the Present Perfect
had + past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)
had worked.hadn'tworked.Had Iworked?
He had worked.He hadn'tworked.Had heworked?
had gone.hadn't gone.Had I gone?
He had gone.He hadn't gone.Had he gone?
Past Perfect Progressive or
Past Perfect Continuous
how long

since

for
how long something had been happening before something else happenedhad + been +infinitive + inghad beenworking.hadn't beenworking.Had I beenworking?
He had beenworking.He hadn't beenworking.Had he beenworking?
had beengoing.hadn't beengoing.Had I beengoing?
He had beengoing.He hadn't beengoing.Had he beengoing?
will - future predictions about the future (you think that sth. will happen)

you decide to do sth. spontaneously at the time of speaking, you haven't made a decision before

main clause in type I of the if clauses
will + infinitiveI'll work.won't work.Will I work?
He'll work.He won't work.Will hework?
I'll go.won't go.Will I go?
He'll go.He won't go.Will he go?
going to - future when you have already decided to do sth. in the future

what you think what will happen
be (am/are/is)going to +infinitiveI'm going towork.I'm not going towork.Am I going towork?
He's going towork.He's not going to work.Is he going towork?
I'm going to go.I'm not going togo.Am I going togo?
He's going togo.He's not going to go.Is he going togo?
Future Progressive or
Future Continuous
 An action will be in progress at a certain time in the future. This action has begun before the certain time.

Something happens because it normally happens.
will + be +infinitive + ingI'll be working.won't beworking.Will I beworking?
He'll beworking.He won't beworking.Will he beworking?
I'll be going.won't begoing.Will I begoing?
He'll be going.He won't begoing.Will he begoing?
Simple
Future
Perfect
or
Future Perfect
Simple
 sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the futurewill + have +past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)
I'll haveworked.won't haveworked.Will I haveworked?
He'll haveworked.He won't haveworked.Will he haveworked?
I'll have gone.won't havegone.Will I havegone?
He'll have gone.He won't havegone.Will he havegone?
Future
Perfect
Progressive or
Future
Perfect
Continuous
 sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the future


emphasis: length of time of an action
will + have +been + infinitiveingI'll have beenworking.won't have been working.Will I havebeenworking?
He'll have beenworking.He won't have been working.Will he havebeenworking?
I'll have beengoing.won't havebeen going.Will I havebeenworking?
He'll have beengoing.He won't havebeen going.Will he havebeenworking?
Conditional Simple sth. that might happen

main clause in type II of the Conditional sentences
would +infinitivewould work.wouldn't 
work
.
Would I 
work
?
He would work.He wouldn'twork.Would he 
work
?
would go.wouldn't go.Would I go?
He would go.He wouldn't 
go
.
Would he 
go
?
Conditional Progressive
or
Conditional
Continuous
 sth. that might happen

emphasis: length of time of an action
would + be +infinitive + ingwould beworking.wouldn't beworking.Would I beworking?
He would beworking.He wouldn't beworking.Would he beworking?
would begoing.wouldn't begoing.Would I begoing?
He would begoing.He wouldn't begoing.Would he begoing?
Conditional Perfect sth. that might have happened in the past
(It's too late now.)

main clause in type III of the if clauses
would + have +past participle*

*(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs)
would haveworked.wouldn't haveworked.Would I haveworked?
He would haveworked.He wouldn't have worked.Would hehaveworked?
would havegone.wouldn't havegone.Would I havegone?
He would havegone.He wouldn't have gone.Would I havegone?
Conditional Perfect
Progressive
or
Conditional
Perfect
Continuous
 sth. that might have happened in the past
(It's too late now.)

emphasis: length of time of an action
would + have +been + infinitiveingwould have been working.wouldn't have been workingWould I havebeenworking?
He would
have been
going.
He wouldn't have beengoing.Would he 
have
 beenworking?
would have been going.wouldn't have been going.Would I havebeen going?
He would have been going.He wouldn't have beengoing.Would he 
have
 beengoing?







English Tenses – Graphic Comparison




Tenses

Legend

Tenses
moment in time
  • action that takes place once, never or several times
  • actions that happen one after another
  • actions that suddenly take place
Tenses
period of time
  • action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond that moment
  • actions taking place at the same time
Tenses
Result
  • action taking place before a certain moment in time
  • puts emphasis on the result
Tenses
Course / Duration
  • action taking place before a certain moment in time
  • puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action





English Tenses – Examples


 ExplanationPastPresentFuture
 Simple PastSimple PresentFuture I Simple
a moment in timeaction that takes place once, never or several timesHe played football every Tuesday.He plays football every Tuesday.He will / is going to play football every Tuesday.
actions that happen one after anotherHe played football and then he went home.He plays football and then he goes home.He will play football and then he will go home.
stateHe loved football.He loves football.He will love football.
 Past ProgressivePresent ProgressiveFuture I Progressive
a period of timeaction going on at that momentHe was playing football.He is playing football.He will be playing football.
actions taking place at the same timeHe was playing football and she was watching.He is playing football and she is watching.He will be playing football and she will be watching.
 Past Perfect SimplePresent Perfect SimpleFuture II Simple
resultaction taking place before a certain moment in time; emphasises the resultHe had won five matches until that day.He has won five matches so far.He will have won five matches by then.
 Past Perfect ProgressivePresent Perfect ProgressiveFuture II Progressive
Course / Durationaction taking place before a certain moment in time (and beyond), emphasises the durationHe had been playing football for ten years.He has been playing football for ten years.He will have been playing football for ten years.





Table of English Tenses


tenseAffirmative/Negative/QuestionUseSignal Words
Simple PresentA: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?
  • action in the present taking place once, never or several times
  • facts
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action set by a timetable or schedule
always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)
Present ProgressiveA: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?
  • action taking place in the moment of speaking
  • action taking place only for a limited period of time
  • action arranged for the future
at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
Simple PastA: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?
  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action taking place in the middle of another action
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)
Past ProgressiveA: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
  • action going on at a certain time in the past
  • actions taking place at the same time
  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action
when, while, as long as
Present Perfect SimpleA: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?
  • putting emphasis on the result
  • action that is still going on
  • action that stopped recently
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Present Perfect ProgressiveA: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?
  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • action that recently stopped or is still going on
  • finished action that influenced the present
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
Past Perfect SimpleA: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)
Past Perfect ProgressiveA: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action
for, since, the whole day, all day
Future I SimpleA: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?
  • action in the future that cannot be influenced
  • spontaneous decision
  • assumption with regard to the future
in a year, next …, tomorrow
If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her, shewill help you.)
assumption: I think, probably, perhaps
Future I Simple
(going to)
A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
  • decision made for the future
  • conclusion with regard to the future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future I ProgressiveA: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?
  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future II SimpleA: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?
  • action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
by Monday, in a week
Future II ProgressiveA: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • putting emphasis on the course of an action
for …, the last couple of hours, all day long
Conditional I SimpleA: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?
  • action that might take place
if sentences type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)
Conditional I ProgressiveA: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?
  • action that might take place
  • putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action
 
Conditional II SimpleA: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?
  • action that might have taken place in the past
if sentences type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)
Conditional II ProgressiveA: He would have been speaking.
N: He would not have been speaking.
Q: Would he have been speaking?
  • action that might have taken place in the past
  • puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action
 


Sources:

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de

http://www.ego4u.com


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